The figures below are the result of various
data sets and own life-cycle calculations. Especially valuable data set was the
EPA study for US vehicles [Heavenrich, 3]. Comments for figures are given after
Curb weight has great effect on fuel
consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of a vehicle. In USA, the inertia mass
of a car is moved in average 300 000 km between manufacturing and scrapping of a
Fuel consumption is affected by many
factors. Compared to Europe, in USA, the cars are heavier, with greater
horsepower, there are more 4WD and automatic transmission cars and the share of
less aerodynamic SUVs, pickups and vans is higher. All these deteriorate the
Tank-to-wheel emissions come from the
exhaust pipe of the car.
take into account the emissions in the fuel manufacturing and transporting. The
emissions of manufacturing, infrastructure, scrapping, recycle and maintenance
are not negligible. Total life-cycle takes into account all emissions of the
The fuel economy and
carbon dioxide emissions of new US light-duty vehicles have become worse and
worse for 20 years. Consequently, replacing a 20 year old car with a new car
does not make things better.
Increasing fraction of
vehicles equipped with 4WD and automatic transmission has negative effect on
Diesel and hybrid
vehicles are much more efficient than gasoline vehicles. Only 1.5% of the
light-duty vehicles sold in USA in 2006 were either diesel or hybrid vehicles.
In some European countries, the diesel fraction of new vehicles is 70%. If
>8500 lb GVWR vehicles, which are used like light-duty vehicles, are taken into
account, the diesel share of US light-duty vehicle fleet would be about 2%.
Bigger engines, more fuel burned. In USA, about one million huge >8500 lb GVWR
vehicles (SUVs and pickup trucks) are sold. If these are taken into account, the
engine displacement would be considerably greater.
More horsepower, more fuel burned.
With a population 90 million less than in
Europe, Americans buy more cars.
Americans buy more and more pickup trucks,
SUVs and vans.
Some emissions of a car are high in manufacturing stage:
Maclean Heather L., Lester B. Lave, A
life-cycle model of an automobile, Environmental Policy Analysis, Vol. 3,
No. 4, 1998.
Christidis Panayotis, Hidalgo Ignacio,
Soria Antonio, Dynamics of the introduction of new passenger car
technologies, The IPTS Transport technologies model, Report EUR 20762 EN,
Heavenrich Robert M., Light-duty
automotive technology and fuel economy trends: 1975 through 2005, Advanced
Technology Division, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, July, 2005.
Kågeson Per, Reducing CO2 emissions
from new cars, European Federation for Transport and Environment, 2005.
Sullivan J.L., Williams R.L., Yester
S., Cobas-Flores E., Chubbs S.T., Hentges S.G., Pomper S.D., Life cycle
inventory of a generic US family sedan overview of results USCAR AMP project,
Society of Automotive Engineers, report 982160, 1998.
MacLean Heather L., Lave Lester B.,
Evaluating automobile fuel/propulsion system technologies, Progress in
Energy and Combustion Science, 2000.
Effectiveness and impact of Corporate
Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, Committee on the Effectiveness and
Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards, Board on Energy
and Environmental Systems Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,
Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, 2002.
Monitoring of ACEA’s commitment on CO2
emission reduction from passenger cars (2001) final report, Joint Report of
the European Automobile Manufacturers Association and the Commission
Services, June 25, 2002.
New registrations in Europe by country
2004, European Automobile Manufacturers Association, www.acea.be, Statistics,
International energy annual 2003,
Energy Information Administration, May–July, 2005.
Eurostat, November 14, 2005.
Forest resources assessment 2000,
Department of Forestry, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy, 2003.
The Nordic Council of Ministers, Rapid
replacement of passenger cars
— a pathway to sustainable mobility, January,