Effect of car scrapping age on various emissions
Kimmo Klemola, D.Sc. (Tech.)
Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering,
Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland
Not only the
use of car causes emissions and consumes energy. Material production,
manufacturing and end of life (scrapping, recycling etc.) contribute
substantially to CO2 emissions as well as many toxic emissions.
dioxide and various other emissions were calculated using the data of the
references [1–9]. The results are shown in figures 1–3. Average new EU-15
light-duty vehicle is the average vehicle sold in 2004 of the total 14.13
million new cars and 1.88 million new vans and pickup trucks . Average new
EU-15 light-duty vehicle is as follows: curb weight 1290 kg [7, 8], scrapping
age 14.4 years , distance 13 500 km/year , fuel consumption 7.3 liters/100
Figure 1. Average new EU-15 light
duty-vehicle. Total life-cycle carbon dioxide emissions (grams CO2/km) as a
function of scrapping age of a car. Data used in the calculations from: [2, 7,
show that rapid replacement of a car fleet is not necessarily the answer for
decreasing carbon dioxide emissions and energy use. The fuel consumption for new
cars should be considerably lower than for old cars, which is not the case. In
USA, the fuel consumption of new cars has steadily increased since 1987. At the
same time the average curb weight has increased about 30%.
example, the life-cycle carbon dioxide emissions (grams CO2/km) for
three new Land Rover models were calculated as a function of scrapping age
Figure 2. Three new Land Rover models. Total
life-cycle carbon dioxide emissions (grams CO2/km) as a function of
scrapping age of a car. Data from http://www2.lut.fi/~kklemola/dontfly/carsof2006.htm.
emissions are considerable in material production, manufacturing and end-of-life
stages as shown in figure 3.
Figure 3. Average new EU-15 light-duty vehicle. Various emissions in material production, manufacturing and
end-of-life stages as a function of scrapping age of a car. Data used in the
calculations from: [2, 4, 7, 8, 9].
Recycling has been taken into account in the
Heather L., Lester B. Lave, A life-cycle model of an automobile,
Environmental Policy Analysis, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1998.
Christidis Panayotis, Hidalgo Ignacio, Soria Antonio, Dynamics of the
introduction of new passenger car technologies, The IPTS Transport
technologies model, Report EUR 20762 EN, June, 2003.
Per, Reducing CO2 emissions from new cars, European Federation for Transport
and Environment, 2005.
J.L., Williams R.L., Yester S., Cobas–Flores E., Chubbs S.T., Hentges S.G.,
Pomper S.D., Life cycle inventory of a generic US family sedan overview of
results USCAR AMP project, Society of Automotive Engineers, report 982160,
Heather L., Lave Lester B., Evaluating automobile fuel/propulsion system
technologies, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science,
Vol. 29, No.1,
pp. 1–69, 2003.
Effectiveness and impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards,
Committee on the Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy
(CAFE) Standards, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Division on
Engineering and Physical Sciences, Transportation Research Board, National
Research Council, 2002.
Monitoring of ACEA’s commitment on CO2 emission reduction from passenger
cars (2001) final report, Joint Report of the European Automobile
Manufacturers Association and the Commission Services, June 25, 2002.
registrations in Europe by country 2004, European Automobile Manufacturers
Association, www.acea.be, Statistics, 2005.
November 14, 2005.
life-cycle assessment of new car models (2006) can be found at: